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Most dangerous areas for whale shark-shipping vessel collisions revealed

Targeted measures could help protect endangered species with potentially minimal impact on the shipping industry, say researchers.

Researchers have found that heavily used shipping lanes pass through crucial whale shark feeding grounds, posing a threat to this endangered species. Research published today May 15th 2024 in Science of the Total Environment has revealed areas where the sharks are at the highest risk of colliding with large shipping vessels by mapping the locations of whale shark aggregations and overlaying them with information on shipping traffic.

“The almost ubiquitous overlap of at least some large shipping vessel traffic with whale shark aggregations underlines the magnitude of the threat the shipping industry poses,” says lead author Dr Freya Womersley, a researcher at the Marine Research and Conservation Foundation (MARECO), the University of Southampton and the Marine Biological Association (MBA). “Our findings highlight the need for targeted measures within these areas to reduce the risk of collision and improve the conservation status of endangered whale sharks.”

A whale shark with a healed ship strike on its head and gills ©Gonzalo Araujo

A growing concern

The world’s merchant fleet has doubled in size in the last 16 years. There are now more than 100,000 ships transporting goods worldwide and this number is expected to grow by as much as 1,200 per cent over the next ~27 years.

Collisions with wildlife – also known as ship strikes, are a growing concern and can be a leading cause of death for large marine animals, with more than 75 species at risk of population-level consequences.

Whale sharks have a declining population and spend almost half their time in surface waters, often in coastal areas that are heavily used by shipping vessels.

Dr Gonzalo Araujo, Director at MARECO, said: “Collisions with large ships are likely to be fatal for whale sharks, but evidence is scarce. That’s because whale sharks are slightly negatively buoyant, so their bodies sink. To inform conservation efforts, it’s important to quantify collision-related threats even when direct evidence is lacking.”

Identifying high-risk areas

Although they are mainly solitary creatures, whale sharks regularly come together in search of prey at special sites around the world called constellations. It is especially important to reduce threats to whale sharks inside constellations because the sharks are concentrated in high densities.

Researchers from MARECO, the University of Southampton, the MBA and Marine Megafauna Foundation (MMF) drew on the experience of specialists who study whale sharks around the world to map and gather insights on these constellations.

Over 75 experts responded to a series of survey questions and identified areas where they have encountered the most whale sharks (core habitats), as well as other places whale sharks have been spotted (buffer zones). In total 107 areas were identified in 26 countries. The experts reported observations from over 13 thousand individuals, representing over half of all identified whale sharks.

The team then used information on large ship positions – provided by Global Fishing Watch ( – to understand the density of shipping in each of the constellations.

Whale sharks were most in danger of coming into contact with large vessels off the coast of mainland Ecuador, Isla Mujeres and La Paz in Mexico, Ewing Bank in the northern Gulf of Mexico, Kota Kinabalu and Redang Island in Malaysia, Pintuyan in the Philippines, Musandam in Oman and around the Seychelles and Taiwan.  

The researchers identified 39 of these sites where peaks in shipping activity coincided with peak seasonal occurrences of whale sharks, sometimes across several months.

Dr Chris Rohner, Principal Scientist at MMF said: “Many of these sites had more than one vessel per square kilometre in core habitats. For example, the constellation in Isla Mujeres in Mexico has an average of 56 ships passing through the core habitat monthly. These sites require urgent action to reduce the threats posed by shipping.”

Results showed that some experts involved in the study underestimated the threat posed by large ship collisions within constellation sites due to a lack of direct evidence, such as injuries or witness accounts, which are available for other, sub-lethal threat categories like tourism interactions and small vessel collisions.

A large ship cruises within close proximity of the Yucatan's constellation in Mexico ©Simon J Pierce

Reducing the risk

The research team also looked at how this threat could be mitigated. They simulated vessel movements within the whale shark constellation at Ewing Bank, in the northern Gulf of Mexico to find that reducing the speed of vessels passing through the constellation by 75 per cent resulted in a small cost to shipping, with an approximate increase in total transit time of 5 per cent, on average, but a potentially high gain for whale sharks as slower ships can better see, and avoid collisions with, the sharks.

Dr Womersley said: “One of the benefits of speed reductions is that they can be temporarily introduced during whale shark peak seasons. These speed limits can also be applied to smaller vessels which are less deadly but can still damage the sharks.” 

Rerouting the ships around core habits had even less of an impact – an approximate 0.5 per cent increase in total transit time (just 2.4 hours per vessel) and a 1.1 per cent increase in total distance travelled, on average.

Dr Araujo added: “Rerouting is the most direct way to reduce the risk of collision and our results suggest that this will often be more cost-effective than speed reduction, mainly because whale shark core sites are small. Movements of as little as 12 nm (22.2 km) away from of a core whale shark habitat could mean fast transiting ships avoid the site entirely.”

Amy Fraenkel, Executive Secretary of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), noted “CMS plays a pivotal role in securing the long-term survival of the whale shark – a globally endangered species. Ensuring the safety of this highly migratory species from vessel collisions within its migratory range particularly at aggregation sites, is a key goal under CMS.”

The researchers say support for these measures requires increased awareness and education of the issue as well as improved data, but suggest effective management strategies could pave the way for coexistence between this important species and the shipping industry.

Identifying priority sites for whale shark ship collision management globally is published in Science of the Total Environment and is available #OpenAccess online.

This study was partly funded by the German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation, Nuclear Safety and Consumer Protection, and Marine Research and Conservation Foundation and was supported by the UK Natural Environment Research Council.



Notes for editors

1.     Identifying priority sites for whale shark ship collision management globally is published in Science of the Total Environment. An advanced, in press copy of the paper is available here:

2.     The study mirrors a recent resolution by the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals aimed at ‘reducing the risks of vessel strikes for marine megafauna – including specific guidance for Whale Sharks’ (UNEP/CMS/Resolution 14.5). It highlights the need for a coordinated and urgent multi-national approach to collision mitigation within priority whale shark habitats to ensure adequate collision protection for this endangered species.

3.     For interviews or more information, please contact Dr Gonzalo Araujo, gonzo[at] or +44 7[seven]29739096.

Additional information

Marine Research and Conservation Foundation (MARECO) is a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity No. 1190861), working on the conservation of marine megafauna and their habitats. MARECO works through scientific research, policy and collaboration between governments, NGOs, academia and local people to safeguard a future for our oceans. Learn more at

Follow us on socials: @mareco_org


The Marine Biological Association (MBA) is a learned society of scientists and members in 40 countries, across 5 continents. Its in-depth scientific research into the interconnected marine environment is carried out from its prestigious laboratory HQ in Plymouth, UK. It has royal charter status for its world-leading role in marine biology research. Since 1884, the MBA has worked as a voice for the ocean and in the interests of the global marine biological community. The MBA’s advanced knowledge has contributed to the work of several Nobel Laureates and over 170 Fellows of the Royal Society. 


Follow us on X: @thembauk


The University of Southampton drives original thinking, turns knowledge into action and impact, and creates solutions to the world’s challenges. We are among the top 100 institutions globally (QS World University Rankings 2023). Our academics are leaders in their fields, forging links with high-profile international businesses and organisations, and inspiring a 22,000-strong community of exceptional students, from over 135 countries worldwide. Through our high-quality education, the University helps students on a journey of discovery to realise their potential and join our global network of over 200,000 alumni.


The Marine Megafauna Foundation (MMF) is a non-profit conservation organization based in Palm Beach, Florida. Founded in 2009, MMF is dedicated to the research and protection of threatened marine megafauna, focusing on large marine species like sharks, rays, and sea turtles, often referred to as 'megafauna'. Their mission is to ensure these majestic creatures thrive in harmony with humans. With a global reach, MMF works to understand these species' intricacies and the threats they face.

Discover more at 


The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) is an environmental treaty of the United Nations, that provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats. CMS brings together the States through which migratory animals pass, the Range States, and lays the legal foundation for internationally coordinated conservation measures throughout a migratory range.

Learn more at and on socials: @BonnConvention

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